Muslim State Armed Conflict & Compliance (MSACC) Dataset: 1947-2014

Most of the world’s humanitarian aid goes to Muslim-majority communities, whether in the form of security support, development aid, or NGO assistance. But policymakers and the public at large do not fully understand conflict dynamics in the Muslim world.

Experts, likewise, have little knowledge about how Muslim governments use international legal norms to navigate conflict and postconflict challenges. To better inform and help shape US security and foreign policy, this project uses social science methods to analyze modern Muslim-majority state conflict behavior, to examine these states’ compliance with international humanitarian law (IHL), and to quantify the frequency of IHL language versus Shari’a versus in their constitutions.

Sharia/IHRL Density Maps

Hover over this map with your cursor to toggle between Sharia and UDHR density for Muslin-majority nations. (Map designed by Jeff Myers.)

Click on the symbols to the left of the main map/color pins to read the color-coded map key.

List of OIC Countries

OIC_Logo Details of Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member states, including population, state religion, and government type.
View List of OIC Countries

Scroll over map to view OIC nations vital statistics. Click countries for more information.


MSACC Datasets, Codebook, Findings, & Scholarship

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Conflict Behavior

This extensive dataset details all conflicts in which a Muslim state—defined by its membership in the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)—was a party, from 1947-2014. It includes parties to the conflict, years of the conflict. The dataset is broken down by region and time period to allow for more detailed analysis.

View Conflict Behavior
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Compliance with International Humanitarian Law

This dataset is a variation of the above MSACC Dataset: Conflict Behavior. It details all conflicts OIC Muslim states have been involved in between 1947 and 2014 and includes all violations of International Humanitarian Law (IHL) committed by each state party, if applicable. The purpose of this dataset is so that analysis based on compliance with IHL can accurately reflect each states’ participation in conflicts.

This analysis is based on the number of times a state was involved in a conflict, whereas the MSACC Dataset: Conflict Behavior is based on the number of conflicts that actually occurred. For example, while the conflict between Algeria and Morocco between 1963 and 1964 only occurred once—and is counted once for MSACC Dataset: Conflict Behavior—for the Compliance with IHL dataset, the conflict is counted once under Algeria (to account for Algeria’s compliance with IHL in the conflict) and once under Morocco (to account for Morocco’s compliance with IHL in the conflict)

View Compliance with IHL
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Muslim Constitutions & Sharia Density

In order to test possible explanations for OIC Muslim states’ conflict behaviors and compliance with IHL, this dataset gathers the constitutions-in-force of all the states and identified language consistent with Sharia law and International Human Rights Law, as exemplified by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).  The Sharia language in the constitutions was divided into six overarching categories, while the IHRL language followed the 30 articles of the UDHR.

View Muslim Constitutions & Sharia Density
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Conflict Chart

This chart serves as the source of data for MSACC Dataset: Conflict Behavior and MSACC Dataset: Compliance with IHL. Included in the chart are the conflicts in which OIC states were belligerents, the party or non-state group OIC states fought against, a brief description of the conflict, and the violations of IHL that each state committed in the conflict, if applicable.

View the Conflict Chart
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Codebook

The Codebook accompanies the MSACC Dataset in its entirety, including MSACC Dataset: Conflict Behavior; MSACC Dataset: Compliance with IHL; MSACC Dataset: Muslim Constitutions and Sharia Density; and the MSACC Conflict Chart.  It seeks to explain the methodological and analytical choices made by the research team in compiling the datasets.

Read the Codebook
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Findings & Research Questions

The MSACC Overview provides a brief summary of the main findings of all three datasets. The Research Questions describe the main orienting questions with which our dataset research has proceeded.

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Scholarship

“Armed Conflict & Compliance in Muslim States, 1947–2014: Does Conflict Look Different Under IHL?” North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation, 40:3 (Spring 2015). (Corri Zoli, Emily Schneider, & Courtney Schuster.)

Ten Recommendations for Obama’s CVE Summit.” Foreign Policy, Feb. 18, 2015. (Corri Zoli & Emily Schneider.)

Why Iraq Must Stop Playing the Shari’a Card.” New America Foundation Weekly Wonk (Nov. 13, 2014). (Corri Zoli, Emily Schneider, & Alliya Anjum.)

How Islamic Is Pakistan’s Constitution?Foreign Policy (May 15, 2014). (Corri Zoli & Emily Schnieder.)

What Egypt’s New Constitution Tells Us About Political Transition.Fletcher Forum on World Affairs, Tufts University (March 12, 2014). (Corri Zoli & Courtney Schuster.)

Shari’a Strategy: Rule of Law Replacing the State.Syria in Crisis, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Jan. 4, 2014). (Corri Zoli & Emily Schneider.)

“Shari’a Courts Move to the Battlefield: Jabhat al-Nusra Opens a Legal Front in the Syrian Civil War.” National Security Journal (Jan. 3, 2014). (Corri Zoli & Emily Schneider.)

Privacy in Muslim Constitutions & the Bilateral Security Agreement.” The Washington Post (Jan. 2, 2014). (Corri Zoli & Emily Schneider.)


MSACC Timeline

The MSACC Timeline was developed by Jeff Myers.

Contact

Corinne Zoli Corri Zoli
INSCT Director of Research/Research Assistant Professor
cbzoli@syr.edu
315.443.4523
This research is managed and led by INSCT Research Assistant Professor Corri Zoli, who is assisted by Carolyn Abdenour, Emily Schneider, and Courtney Schuster, all SU College of Law 2013 and INSCT graduates, and by Alliya Anjum, INSCT Research Affiliate.
UA-38936789-1